by ugurbirlik on Février 17, 2015 - 7:12am
The labour force movements from Turkey towards to some western countries has started in the late 1950s and the first years of the 1960s and it is still continuing. Economic recession caused by the oil crisis in 1973 was interrupted the immigration movement for a while. But it could not have prevented the immigration to continue in the form of "family reunion".
The biggest external migration has occurred towards to Germany. The migration from Turkey to the European countries and especially to Germany is based on the demand of labor of these countries.
Between the Federal Republic of Germany and Turkey, the forty-five years ago today on October 30, 1961, a labor agreement was signed never considered the consequences. At the first time, Turkish labor migration had started with 2700 workers who sent as guest workers and it has continued increasingly in subsequent years. And today, migration has caused to the formation of population approaching three million Turks or Turkish origin in Germany. Turks in Germany, have become permanent over time in this country. They helped the economic development of both their homeland Turkey and Germany they accept as a second home and have affected the socio-cultural structures.
The migration largely was towards to European country. The reason why is to earn money more and easly in terms of the individual, but in terms of the state is to find a solution to unemployment and lack of foreign currency in the country.
The industry of Germany has developed rapidly after the Second World War, that's why Germany was faced with labor shortages since the mid-1950s. Germany has overcome this deficiency with workers brought from Spain and Greece firstly. Germany has begun to take force workers since 1961 from Turkey and in 1963 from Morocco only to operate in mines. Labor recruitment has continued in subsequent years.
Between the years of 1961-1973 the number of workers who migrated from Turkey to Germany by taking their "Employment Contract" is about 865,000. In this first period, middle-aged men are created the majority of the participants in the emigration. The educational level of this group is the secondary education level and skilled workers category. The number of female population has increased in subsequent periods through family reunion and marriage. Turkey has sent abroad for 17% of qualified labor force until 1973. According to estimates, there were about 9 thousand teachers among these workers. Turkish citizens coming to Germany as "Guest Worker" were sheltering places such as sheds, attics, old workshops, stores and abroad in the form of jerry-built apartment which had been prepared by employers. Despite European standards and instructions regarding the relevant, the quality of shelter workers were low, health conditions were not suitable.
Reasons such as negativity which is located within Turkey's economy, violence, terrorism, political strife and paying less money to children in Turkey on the grounds of entered into force in 1975, "child benefit arrangements" and military coup of September 12, 1980 has started an intensive "family Reunion" migration since 1974 from Turkey to Germany. During this period (1974-1983), 1.15 million people had emigrated to Germany. Workers in Germany as of this date, began to move to homes from their longer dormitories in the country. On the grounds of they still had plans and desires of coming back to Turkey, houses were furnished with furniture left in the street more.
Germany has described the foreigners in the country, as "Gastarbeiter" (guest workers) until the 1980s. Because being a "country of immigrants" had not requested. However, in time, go back to their home is delayed. That's why the term of "Mitarbeiter"(colleague) began to be used for them. When they are permanently in the country became definite, the term of "Migranten" (Immigrants) was used. And this term is still being continued to be used. But this situation meant that Germany became a country which is immigrants live.
From the date of the start of the Turkish labor migration have passed half a century. he number of these people came to Germany to meet some urgent needs for several years, today has reached 3 million. Turkish migrant workers who contained the generally homogeneous form in the first period, today are located in all areas of social life of German. Their social position have changed; as workers, self-employed, artists, athletes, scientists and employers they are located in a heterogeneous structure. Today they have created a world of their own ; Turkish press and publication, mosques, markets, money changers, discos, cultural associations... They have been in almost all areas.
According to data from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, by the year 2012 "three million people of Turkish origin living in Germany and slightly more than half of them has German citizenship". (Auswärtiges Amt, 2013). Although in recent years the decrease the number of immigrants from Turkey to Germany , Turks still constitute the largest immigrant groups today. Especially in recent years, Turks in Germany have made great progress in terms of political, social and economic, although it is not sufficient compared to the population they have.
Since 50 years, the number of Turkish employers "have reached 80,000 people and the number of employees reached 420,000 people". (BTEU 2 , 2013). And Turks have created their own economies in Germany. The Turks who settled in Germany's social life had organized in almost every area and and they have created their own infrastructure from press-publication to education. Today Turks is not following only the Turkish media, they are closely following both the Turkish media and German media. (Sauer, 2010: 182). In the political arena, particularly in the 2013 elections, candidates of Turkish origin showed a great success. The number of Turkish origin deputies in the German Parliament reached 11 people by increasing two-fold compared to the previous election. A deputy of Turkish origin was elected from Christian Democratic Party, Hamburg MP Aydan Özoğuz has become in both the Vice President in German Social Democratic Party and the Minister of State responsible for adaptation in the coalition government. All of these have been among the firsts in Germany.
Today in Germany, three generations of Turkish citizens live together. The first generation, came to Germany with the intention of staying a short time in the 1960s. The group called "Second generation Turks" are children of people who first come to Germany. This group has intensively emigrated to Germany in the late 1970s and in the first half of the 1980s. And the third generation Turks are the grandchildren of the first generation. Third generation can speak German very well and they are the generation much more compatible with the German society. This generation is the generation that made the most controversial in terms of socio-cultural and socio-economic life. Because the majority of this generation were born in Germany. In the process of integration into society which they will spend their lives, how will be or should be their identities of nation and religion ? All of this is discussed as a problem by the authorities of both countries.
Today, while the first generation of Turks are preparing to retirement, second and third generation of Turks are increasingly turning to prestigious professions in the German society. Today, 30,000 Turkish students, studying at German universities and law, economics, engineering and social-sciences branches is gaining importance as the most preferred by Turkish students.
Turks who constitutes the consumer groups in the German economy , are buying houses today. According to a survey conducted by TAM, there is over 4 million Turks in across Europe and 255 thousand of them have their own houses. They pay taxes, invest, create employment and added value and making their future plans in Germany.
Social groups seen as the most powerful social and cultural integration trends, have been second and third generations of Turks. Especially after the of second generation grew up , Turks have begun to establish a better dialogues with German society by moving away from marginal appearance in all areas. While the number of Turks are increasing at all levels of the German education system, Turks came out of status of unskilled workers and they have begun to work in skilled jobs. To increase the level of education has led to the rise of professional qualifications. The Turks began to arrive in a position to change their images in the minds of Germans. They have become an important social group with the effect of a positive result of their change process.
Consequently, the Turks came as guest workers in Germany ,have become permanent in this country, by the time. They have helped the economic development of their homeland, Turkey, as well as economy of the Germany which they accept as a second home and they also have influenced the socio-cultural structures of both country. They have decided to continue their lives in this country. Today, Turks represent the second largest population in Germany. To provide the integration, necessary arrangements must be made by the Germany and Turkey. There are two fundamental aspects of the integration : one of them is living together without bias, and the other one is equality of opportunity. Problems should be solved with the sociological perspective and cooperation without assimilation. Individuals must be learned that traditions, values and languages on both cultures. There should be right of them to be German citizens as well as Turkish citizens. All citizens should have equal rights on the community resources and processes. And cultural pluralism must be respected. These results will be advantage of both countries.