Planetary Challenge winter 2018
About this class
This course helps students understand our physical environment, and the impact we have on our environment.
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I decide to comment on this summary because the globe's oceans are threatened by various issues, such as over fishing and pollution you have mentioned and to have more knowledge on the subject and its causes is interesting to me and important to our planet in order for us to keep benefiting from our ocean's resources, which play a major role in human life's nutrition and our ecosystems. In my opinion, over fishing is manageable over time through policies, ententes and aquaculture. The bigger issue is the pollution, which is not as manageable because its impacts are long lasting and it is a struggle to find solutions for it, since it has been stacking up from years behind creating damage. The pollution also plays a role in the fish stocks, so as we already over fish, there are also large amount of fish that are decreasing due to the perturbation of their ecosystem caused by many factors such as the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere mentioned in your summary.
I chose to respond to this summary because I find that it has a lot of interesting information concerning the problems oceans have to deal with nowadays. In an article that I found on ocean acidification, I learned that types of aquacultures such as oysters within Washington State were depleting, which gave that first signs of ocean acidification to the state (Craig, 2015, p.1629). Not only does it affect the life in the ocean, it also has repercussions for people because of its impact on the economy (decreases revenues from fisheries and oyster cultures) (Craig, 2015, p.1629). Most of the ocean acidification comes from sources such as emissions of carbon dioxide and nutrient pollution in the water, closely linked to human activities (Craig, 2015 p.1629). In the state of Washington, a council was made to discuss the issues and possible solutions of ocean acidification, which led to a report that illustrated what should be done (Craig, 2015, p. 1630). I think that more of those types of reports should have a significant impact and should be followed by our politicians if we wish to find a balance between our consumption of earth’s resources and what it is able to offer us.
Craig, R. K. (2015). DEALING WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION: THE PROBLEM, THE CLEAN WATER ACT, AND STATE AND REGIONAL APPROACHES. Washington Law Review, 90(4), 1583-1657. Retrieved from https://proquest-crc.proxy.ccsr.qc.ca/docview/1776675644?accountid=44391
I genuinely believe that this was truly an incredible article. These bacteria! it seems that they keep getting discovered and never truly stop being diverse, unique and yet so simple creatures. Finding that one can dissolve material that are not biodegradable is groundbreaking, in my opinion and can't believe i never heard of that before. But i do have question which i can't seem to find the answers online...Are these bacteria easy to cultivate? How fast can they eat a, lets say, bottle? Then, how much time until they eat enough to make an impact? the "10 or 100 times faster" doesn't really relate to how fast it normally is. I feel like these questions should be answered for us to keep being impressed at how science is helping us save the planet. i agree that if they prove to be of efficient use, we would be blessed as humans. and I agree on the issue of having more humans play with the ecosystem being dangerous. We already messed up a few times, we should be more careful.
I chose to comment on your summary because much like yourself, I also believe that fishing is an important source of sustenance in an increasingly vegetarian society, and that we must draft and apply stricter regulations to fisheries. As your article proposes, by 2048 it is quite possible that little to no sustainable sea life remains for industrial fishing, also supported by the Asian Pacific Post and the United Nations. In fact, overfishing has become so rampant in certain parts of the world that scientists hypothesise that by 2048, the Asian oceans will have lost over 45 % of their biodiversity and over 90 % of their corals (Mata Press Service). The assertions you made and supported concerning the various causes of ocean pollution, loss of biodiversity and reduction in water quality are all of vital importance to the planets ecosystems. These are all, however, very complex issues, with equally complex solutions. Yet, there does exist a viable alternative which would, in my opinion, provide a “complete” solution, requiring fewer steps than attempting to resolve each variable on its own; aquaculture. Aquaculture, is quite simple the farming of marine life in controlled and often artificial environments. Thus, rather than polluting the natural environment, fishing companies create large water reservoirs and grow their fish, process and restart. This allows for a minimum of pollution, it ensures that the natural environments are not overfished to the point of replenishment becomes impossible and should reduce the costs run by companies (Mata Press Service). Humans have grown accustomed to overconsume, and as this remains a world run on money, it would be quite difficult to convince corporations to reduce their production and profits in exchange for stronger regulations and taxation on pollution. Therefor, at least for now in my opinion. A most viable option would be to substitute our ocean fisheries by aquaculture fisheries in the hopes of saving what remains of our ocean biomes.
Mata Press Service. (2018, April 27). Sustainable seafood farms can help Asia's oceans. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from http://www.asianpacificpost.com/article/8254-sustainable-seafood-farms-c...’s-oceans.html
I chose to comment on this summary because I have never given much thought about the impacts that fisheries have on the environment. On the contrary, I thought more about how humans and the climate-changing environment affect fisheries. Much like you, I did not know much about this issue and I am surprised to find out about the intensity at which fisheries pollute. If I had to name the first problem about the fishing industry that came to mind, it would be that humans are fishing too much. Indeed, around three quarters “of major fisheries [have been] fully exploited, overexploited, or depleted” at the beginning of this millenium (Clark & Clausen, 2008). However, I know now that this is not the only important aspect to focus on regarding fisheries. In 2005, a study revealed that “fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates” (Tyedmers & Al, 2005). I think that it is our responsibility as consumers to inform ourselves about where our food came from and what was sacrificed so that our groceries stores are filled with fresh foods. The same principle applies for other sources of foods, such as those coming from agriculture. Even if the issue of fisheries' emissions would be addressed, however, over fishing would still remain an issue.
Clark, B., & Clausen, R. (2008). The oceanic crisis: Capitalism and the degradation of marine ecosystems. Monthly Review, 60(3), 91-111. Retrieved from https://proquest-crc.proxy.ccsr.qc.ca/docview/213216506?accountid=44391
Tyedmers, P. H., Watson, R., & Pauly, D. (2005). Fueling global fishing fleets. Ambio, 34(8), 635-8. Retrieved from https://proquest-crc.proxy.ccsr.qc.ca/docview/207674214?accountid=44391
I chose to respond to this article summary, as I had learnt quite a bit on different types of fishing, such as longlining and bottom trawling, two of which are quite dangerous to the marine life, prior to reading this. I had watched a documentary about bad fishing activity called “Sharkwater” whom Rob Stewart, a biologist, activist, and shark-lover, created, and thought this topic was one that was very interesting. With that said, as mentioned in the article you summarized, the author states that entanglements account for 85% of right whale deaths caused by humans; I do think this is a huge issue, as it is something that can easily be prevented. In addition to right whales, the most commonly entangled whale is the humpback whale. That being said, it was shown that California’s Dungeness crab commercial trap fishery was responsible for one third of entanglements, and this number has doubled since 2015 (Howell, 2017). As stated in your article, this can be prevented as lower-strength rope nets could be used whilst still being able to catch a significant amount of fish, crab, and lobster, as well as reducing the dangerous entanglements by 72%. Considering this, I do agree with Deborah Cramer, when she mentions that we should reduce ship strikes further and change the material we use to catch fish. Not only that, but I also agree that we must eliminate fishing lines, as they are lethal to many aquatic organisms who are caught by accident; although techniques like longline fishing have been banned, a large part of the fishing community still practice this illegal way of catching fish. Lastly, I think that implementing policies in the federal legal system would significantly help protect ocean wildlife and making trap fisheries more sustainable.
Howell, L. (2017) Whale entanglements skyrocket off the U.S. West Coast. Mongabay: News & Inspiration from Nature’s Frontline. Retrieved from https://news.mongabay.com/2017/06/whale-entanglements-skyrocket-off-the-...
I chose to comment on your summary because i have seen alot of videos online about the plastic pollution massively affecting marine life, I also feel somewhat responsible as someone who used to live in one of the five countries that create at least 50% of the plastic pollution in the ocean. I agree that this is a problem that must be tackled immediately before the marine life are forced to adapt to a deterioration environment. According to the study "Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine life" by A.C Vector et al. "plastic pollution now impacts all marine and coastal habitats... [and its] impact on the physical condition of habitats has received little attention". According to the study, in more extreme cases, plastic pollution has been seen to alter the physico-chemical processes such as light and oxygen availability along with temperature and water movement, which leads to alteration in micro and meiobenthic communities and interruption of foraging pattern of key species.
The consequences of plastic waste is not only limited to 'how we get rid of it inland' but also its effects on both land and marine life if not disposed of properly. I believe this is a problem that must be tackled immediately because with the plastic pollution messing up the marine habitat and with the fisheries over exploiting the fishes, i don't think they would last another couple of centuries.
I chose this summary due to my interest in fishing and how it has an affect on our environment. Im interested in knowing what are the possible causes and effects these two attributes have on each other and how it can affect us as humans.
After reading through you summary, I would have to agree with you that the only way that we can enforce change and restrict these measures is by enforcing laws and having a program ran under government control. I cannot see any other way to make change happen other than that. Having fisheries controlled by the government is in my opinion the most optimal and efficient way that we can sustainably manage these fishing industries.
The problem with sustaniable fishing is that it assumes that the growth rate of a species will be constant, but fails to take into account changes in the environment and that they do not live in isolation and as such, there are countless other variables in play that are never taken into account when looking at sustainable fishing. In order for sustainable fishing to be successful, every aspect of the eco system has to be analysed in order for the species in that eco system to survive and flourish. Everything from the specie them self to there predators to our very affects must be looked at with a fine toothed comb.
I decided to chose this article due to my interest in the causes and effects that come into consideration when talking about climate change, and how it could be or could not be problematic and if it is something that we as humans should be worried about.
I would have to agree with you, this summary was well written and went through all the main points in order to understand the situation. It is true that we as humans need to be more patient and aware about the process. If we take more care of our envionment we could possibly see some changes and a reduction in change in climate. The problem with this is that humans do not have the patience in order to change their way and standards of living for long term impact. Humans are used to having something done and having immediate impact, but this is not the case for this situation. Humans will need to adapt to a different standard of living in order to have the best and most successful way of reducing climate change.
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