problem of aging society
by Puppy on July 7, 2014 - 4:01am
The "aging society" is one of a variety of problems faced by Japanese society. Japan has a serious aging problem. Because, Japan has entered in the "super-aging society" that exceed the aging society now. Elderly of Japan (more 65 years) population reached 27 million people. Japan is supporting the elderly and one in four people in Japan are elderly. 25 years later it has been predicted that about one-third of the entire nation will be elderly. Japan is the world's superpower of the elderly. So, Japan must find a solution to this problem. I think about what Japan should be.
First, what is the aging society?
Aging society is a phenomenon that occurs when the median age of a country or region rises due to rising life expectancy and declining birth rates. This has been seen initially in the more economically developed countries. But also more recently in less economically developed countries. Increase in the life expectancy leads to an aging society. This is the case for every country in the world except the 18 countries designated as demographic outliers by the UN. For the entirety of recorded human history, the world has never seen as aged a population as currently exists globally. The UN predicts the rate of population ageing in the 21 century will exceed that of the previous century.
Among the countries currently classified by the United Nations as more developed the overall median age rose from 29.0 in 1950 to 37.3 in 2000, and is forecasted to rise to 45.5 by 2050. The corresponding figures for the world as a whole are 23.9 in 1950, 26.8 in 2000, and 37.8 in 2050. In Japan, one of the world's most quickly ageing countries, in 1950 there were 9.3 people under 20 for every person over 65. By 2025 this ratio is forecast to be 0.59 people under 20 for every person over 65.
The aging society arises from demographic effects, increasing longevity and declining fertility. An increase in longevity raise the average age of the population by increasing the numbers of surviving older people. A decline in fertility reduces the number of babies, and as the effect continues, the numbers of younger people in general also reduces. It is declining fertility that is the largest contributor to population ageing in the world today. More specifically, it is the large decline in the overall fertility rate over the last half century that is primarily responsible for the population ageing in the world’s most developed countries. Because many developing countries are going through faster fertility transitions, they will experience even faster population ageing than the currently developed countries in the future.
Next, what is a problem that occurs in an aging society?
Sustainability of the social security system
Old man welfare system in developed countries have been designed in anticipation of the arrival of the low birth rate Small production society population stable for a long time. Aging up to a certain extent has been factored in. Therefore, the rapid increase in the rate of aging due to low fertility has become a problem that shakes the sustainability of the welfare system.
In addition, social security related expenses to general expenditure has also greatly increased, aging, is a major cause of the budget deficit.
As the aging society increases, the ratio of dependents to the number of workers rises, and the pension burden on the working generation is increased. Development of the Next Generation’s increasing burden is augmented by the low birth rate, but is partially offset by the increase of well educated people. Also, when you replace the welfare of the aged that plays a central role in public support, the development of the next generation’s burden of public support remains in the auxiliary role, for disposable income decrease nominal occurs, (this seems to be a direct quote but it doesn't quite make sense. If it is a quote, it needs to be exact and put into quotation marks. If it is a paraphrasing, understand the comment and refer to the source.) Public backlash is strong. It becomes a higher pension burden and is inhibitory. Therefore, a reduction of pension benefits results. The next generation pension amount will be low although they pay high premiums and the pension burden, leads to distrust of the pension system. Uninsured, unpaid pension increases from these things, the maintenance of dependents system of intergeneration has to be worried about.
Last, what is the solution?
There are a lot of solutions. For example, tax increases, increase of the retirement age to 75, providing e a place for the elderly to work, etc.
I thought that the best solution is to create an environment where it is easy to raise children. To sum up, Child support and cost of treatment, etc. applied to the elementary school children should be free or discounted. In that case, the number of children will increased, and we might be able to solve the aging society problem.
Reference:(2014. 6/15. Wikipedia.