Indigenous peoples in Latin America improve political participation, but women lag behind, says UNPD
by audrey.r29 on October 10, 2013 - 9:03am
This article of united nation’s development program shows us that the indigenous situation in Latin America has to be improved. Even if important problems have not resolved, over the past 20 years some important improvement occurred in the indigenous population of Latin America. There has been incredible mobilization of indigenous people’s political participation. This mobilization has been possible due to access to communication technologies and with the expansion of their rights… Even with this progress, the UNDP has informed us about the triple discrimination that the indigenous and poor women have faced. This discrimination against women and against the unacceptable poverty of indigenous people is a crucial issue that still has to be resolved.
I think that discrimination against indigenous people in Latin America is unacceptable. These populations have suffered from oppression for hundreds of years. I cannot understand why today, in Latin America, but also in Canada, indigenous people are still suffering. Their rights are not recognized in Canada; in front of the law they are considered like children. I am shocked by this situation. However there have been improvements and mobilizations, which must continue. They deserve world recognition.
What do you think of the politic importance of the indigenous population in America, especially in Canada?
Indigenous peoples in Latin America improve political participation, but women lag behind, says UNDP
In Latin America and the Caribbean there are approximately 50 million indigenous peoples, about 10% of the total population. Photo: UNDP Peru
New York - Latin America has gone through an unprecedented mobilization of indigenous peoples in the past 20 years, but their political participation, particularly among women, is still low, according to a new study released today by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) during the 12th Session of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, in New York.
The report 'Intercultural Citizenship—Contributions from the political participation of indigenous peoples in Latin America' (available in Spanish) examines the region’s six countries with highest percentage of indigenous peoples and greatest progress in political participation: Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru.
According to the new study, some key factors have helped boost indigenous peoples political participation in the region, especially: i) an increased number of indigenous movements, which also benefitted from communications technology, including mobile phones, the Internet and social media, ii) the expansion of their rights after countries signed and recognized crucial international conventions and iii) an increased number of government agencies advocating for indigenous issues.
The study highlights that indigenous women’s political inclusion has been a major challenge, since they face "triple discrimination": being female, indigenous and poor. Beyond women’s usual difficulties in breaking the political glass ceiling, especially in developing countries, indigenous customary law further hinders women’s political participation in the region. Even though women have the right to vote and several countries in the region have put in place quotas for women participation in political parties and public offices, indigenous women’s political participation—along with their sexual and reproductive health—are crucial issues that still lag behind, the report stresses.
The report maps the indigenous peoples’ participation in parliament and shows that:
- Among Mexico’s 500 lower house representatives,14 are indigenous and four of them are women (2012-2015)
- In Guatemala there are 158 seats in parliament, 19 are taken by indigenous peoples, three of them are women (2012-2016)
- In Nicaragua of the total 92 deputies in the National Assembly during 2006-2009, three were indigenous peoples and two of them were women
- Among Ecuador’s 124 MPs, seven are indigenous peoples, two of them are women (2009-2013)
- In Peru, there are 130 parliamentarians and only nine are indigenous peoples, two of them are women (2011-2016)
- In Bolivia, where indigenous peoples are the majority of the population, of the 130 MPs 41 are indigenous, but only nine of them are women.
In Latin America and the Caribbean there are approximately 50 million indigenous peoples, about 10% of the total population. However, in two countries, Peru and Guatemala, indigenous peoples encompass almost half of the population, and in Bolivia, they are over 60% of the total population. Even though in Mexico indigenous peoples cover only 10% of the total population, Mexico and Peru contain the largest indigenous population in the region: about 11 million people.
"Beyond cultural barriers, indigenous peoples own little, often unproductive land, and live below the poverty line, which hinder their political inclusion," highlights Gerardo Noto, UNDP Democratic Governance Coordinator for in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Poverty levels among indigenous peoples have hardly changed, despite Latin America’s immense achievements in poverty reduction in recent decades, the report says. "The white-mestizo population has benefited, but not the indigenous peoples, as if they lived in a world secluded from the most positive aspects of development," stressed the report, written mainly by indigenous leaders and experts.
"In recent decades, we have been protagonists of important legal, political and cultural changes which have only started to invert the historic exclusion which our people have been exposed to,” states Mirna Cunningham, of the Miskita poeoples of Nicaragua, who was ex-president and a current expert with the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. "But the challenges we continue to face demand continuous commitment and political will."