Gender and Unemployment
by danielle_harmon on November 6, 2016 - 7:07pm
In the article “Gender and Unemployment” Kathrin Leuze and Susanne Straub have a new way of viewing the questions of ‘why do occupations dominated by women pay less? And how does “female-typical” work tasks and working time arrangements affect the gender was among higher education graduates?’
An occurring problem in society today is gender inequality. There is a known difference between females and males in education. On average, women participate in higher education more than men do. Women also are more involved in labour marketing now, than ever before. One of the most inequality concerns between men and women is their wage gap.
Many people agree to the wage gap and the occupations dominated by women should be paid less. According to Hook, most of the people who agree that occupations dominated by women should be paid less, still believes that women still have the responsibility for cleaning the house, taking care of the children at all times, and cooking dinner (2010). Those who believe that women should be paid less believe that just like before, women stay home while the men go to work. In society, today, most people believe that the “responsibilities of a woman” are the responsibilities of both men and women. Most females enjoy working, this way they do not need to rely on anyone. Budig and England founded that people believe because of parental leave when a mother is due to have a child and part time jobs is the reason for the large wage gap between genders (2001). Although I agree that this may contribute to the gender wage difference, it is still not fair that women dominated jobs pay less. Both men and women jobs should be paid fairly equal depending on the occupation. The difference between the wage gap between genders should be less relevant for higher education graduates at the beginning of their career but they aren’t, this is the reason I believe that this sets a good example for gender inequality. I do believe that it is fair to have a wage difference between higher educated people but not based on gender. I understand men and women sometimes specialize in different subjects of work in different types of occupations but I do not understand why females are being paid less in jobs that they dominate simply because of their gender. England an Li found that according to the “devaluation theory”, women are valued less than men in the culture of other countries mostly in the West, which is why all things associated with woman are valued less. This includes occupations (2006).
Apparently “female-typical” work tasks and working time arrangements affect gender wages. Women who have children often worked less. This is because women must put their priorities first, which is their children. This requires them to work less hours so they can tend to their children. Men tend to make more money because they generally do not need to take time out of work to take care of their children. In conclusion, women work less hours. It is known that working overtime increases wages while working part time decreases wages. This indicates that Occupations dominated by women pay less due to their “female-typical” working time arrangements.
Article: Leuze, K., & Strauß, S. (2016). Why do occupations dominated by women pay less? how 'female-typical' work tasks and working-time arrangements affect the gender wage gap among higher education graduates. Work, Employment & Society, 30(5), 802-820.
Hook JL (2010) Gender inequality in the welfare state: sex segregation in housework. 1965–2003. American Journal of Sociology 115(5): 1480–523.
Budig MJ and England P (2001) The wage penalty for motherhood. American Sociological Review 66(2): 204–25
England P and Li S (2006) Desegregation stalled: the changing gender composition of college majors, 1971–2002. Gender & Society 20(5): 657–77